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The researchers carried out a series of experiments on little skates (Leucoraja erinacea) and found that adult skates have a specialized type of progenitor cell to create new cartilage. They were able to label these cells, trace their descendants, and show that they give rise to new cartilage in an adult skeleton.
Why is this important? There are few therapies for repairing cartilage in humans and those that exist have severe limitations. As humans develop, almost all of our cartilage eventually turns into bone. The stem cell therapies used in cartilage repair face the same issue--the cells often continue to differentiate until they become bone. They do not stop as cartilage. But in skates, the stem cells do not create cartilage as a steppingstone; it is the end result.
"We're looking at the genetics of how they make cartilage, not as an intermediate point on the way to bone, but as a final product," says Gillis.
The research is in its early stages, but Gillis and his team hope that by understanding what genes are active in adult skates during cartilage repair, they could better understand how to stop human stem-cell therapies from differentiating to bone.
Note: There is no scientific evidence that "shark cartilage tablets" currently marketed as supplements confer any health benefits, including relief of joint pain. Source:
Marine Biological Laboratory Journal reference:
Marconi, A., et al. (2020) Adult chondrogenesis and spontaneous cartilage repair in the skate, Leucoraja erinacea. eLife . doi.org/10.7554/eLife.53414 .
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