A group led by researchers from Kobe University has illuminated clinical factors that are related to the occurrence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in newborns. They revealed for the first time in the world that fever or cold-like symptoms (including cough, sore throat and runny nose) during pregnancy, and threatened miscarriage or threatened premature labor in the second trimester (14-27 gestational weeks) were associated with CMV infection in newborns.
The cross-institutional research group consisted of Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine's Professor YAMADA Hideto (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology), Nihon University School of Medicine's Professor MORIOKA Ichiro (Department of Pediatrics and Child Health) and Director MINEMATSU Toshio (of Aisenkai Nichinan Hospital's Research Center for Disease Control), among others.
Recent research conducted by this team and others has indicated that the blood tests currently carried out on pregnant women might not be effective in determining the likelihood of congenital CMV infection in newborns. This research has illuminated clinical factors during pregnancy that could be used to predict the occurrence of congenital CMV infection without relying on blood tests. This would allow at-risk newborns to be comprehensively tested and treated immediately when necessary; hopefully reducing the number of children suffering from the aftereffects of congenital CMV infection.
The results of this research were published in the American scientific journal ' Clinical Infectious Diseases ' on January 14, 2020. Main points: Cytomegalovirus can infect fetuses, causing mental and physical development issues as well as hearing difficulties in newborns. Recently, it has been reported that early treatment with antiviral drugs can ameliorate loss of hearing and delayed mental development. Therefore, the early detection of newborns with congenital CMV infection is highly important. As it was previously thought that the majority of CMV infected newborns were born to mothers who were initially infected during the pregnancy, maternal blood tests (for example, serology tests that detect antibodies) have been used to screen for the virus. However, there are in fact more newborns with congenital CMV infection whose mothers had the virus prior to the pregnancy as opposed to mothers who contracted the virus during the pregnancy. The severe aftereffects in newborns remain the same in both cases. Serology tests may be unable to predict the occurrence of congenital CMV infection in mothers who were infected prior to the current pregnancy. The research team looked for clinical factors during pregnancy that could be used to predict congenital CMV infection occurrence without relying on blood tests. Research background
Research has focused on CMV because it can cause severe aftereffects if it infects the fetus, including issues with mental and physical development and hearing loss. It is a big issue worldwide; for example, it is estimated that around 1000 babies are born with congenital CMV infections every year in Japan.
Presently there are no effective vaccines or treatments available, therefore screening all pregnant women for CMV has been discouraged. However, it has recently been revealed that prompt treatment of affected newborns with antiviral drugs can improve mental and hearing outcomes. Consequently, the importance of accurate detection of congenital CMV infections in infants prior to birth has been reasserted.
Until recently, it was thought that newborns with congenital CMV infection were born to mothers who initially acquired the infection during pregnancy (primary infection). For this reason, maternal serological screening, such as blood tests for CMV-specific immunoglobin (Ig) M, IgG antibodies (*4), and CMV IgG avidity tests, were considered effective for detecting pregnancies with a high risk of congenital CMV infection.
However in recent years, many researchers from around the world reported that there were more infected babies born to pregnant women with chronic CMV infection prior to the affected pregnancy than those born to pregnant women with primary CMV infection. In addition, the severity of the symptoms in newborns was similar regardless of when the mother was infected. This research group also published results indicating this in ' Clinical Infectious Diseases ' in 2017. These research studies illuminated the dangers of congenital CMV infection being overlooked in some cases due to the ineffectiveness of serological screening. Related Stories
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