The Black Death still lurks all over the world Inputs from the vestibular system of the inner ear. These travel via the eighth cranial nerve or the vestibulocochlear nerve and are involved in motion sickness causing nausea and vomiting. There is an abundance of the H1 type of histamine receptors in this system that can be suppressed by the H1 type of antihistaminics to control vomiting induced by motion sickness. The tenth cranial nerve or the vagus nerve carries signals to the CTZ when the back of the throat or pharynx is irritated or stimulated. This is called the gag reflex. The nervous system around the gut or the enteric nervous system also transmits signals to the brain via the vagus nerve. It is via this system that radiation therapy, chemotherapy and gastroenteritis activate the 5-HT3 receptors leading to vomiting. Dopamine receptors are activated by stress and several psychiatric conditions, leading to vomiting. The process of vomiting
The process of vomiting involves several phases and steps. These include: Stimulation of the CTZ leading to activation of the motor, parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system leading to increased salivation Deep breathing preceding the actual vomiting to protect the lungs from aspiration Heaving or retching before the actual vomiting Relaxation of the pyloric sphincter that guards the lower end of the stomach to bring up content from the gut The pressure within the abdomen rises and the pressure within the chest or thorax is lowered. The abdominal muscles contract to expel the contents of the stomach Activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to sweating, palpitation and rapid heart rate Sources
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