Individuals with a history of early life adversity (ELA) are disproportionately prone to opioid addiction. A new UCI-led study reveals why.
Published in Molecular Psychiatry , the study titled, "On the early life origins of vulnerability to opioid addiction," examines how early adversities interact with factors such as increased access to opioids to directly influence brain development and function, causing a higher potential for opioid addiction.
We already know that genetics plays a major role in addiction vulnerability. But, this factor alone cannot account for the recent exponential rise in opioid abuse. Our team was determined to find out if environmental factors, like early life adversity, were contributing." Tallie Z. Baram, MD, PhD, the Danette Shepard Chair in Neurological Sciences at the UCI School of Medicine and one of the senior researchers for the study
Until now, it was unclear whether alterations of the maturation and function of pleasure/reward circuits in the brain, resulting from ELA, actually caused individuals to be more vulnerable to opioid use disorder.
"Our work creates, for the first time, a direct causal link between early life adversity and opioid addiction vulnerability," said Stephen V. Mahler, an assistant professor in the Department of Neurobiology & Behavior at the UCI School of Biological Sciences and a senior researcher for the study. "This is key to the development of predictive biomarkers and possible prevention strategies aimed at addressing the growing opioid abuse epidemic."
Prior studies involving rodents demonstrated that ELA is characterized by chaotic, unpredictable maternal signals to the developing pups. Converging evidence from both humans and rodents shows that such unpredictable, fragmented early life environments may lead to abnormal maturation of certain brain circuits, which profoundly impacts brain function and persists into adolescence and adulthood. Related Stories
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